Maykop (Russian: Майкоп; Adyghe: Мыекъуапэ, Myequape, literally, The valley of apple trees) is the capital city of the Republic of Adygea, Russia, located on the right bank of the Belaya River (a tributary of the Kuban). It borders Maykopsky District, from which it is administratively and municipally separate, in the east and south; Giaginsky District in the north, and Belorechensky District of Krasnodar Kraiin the west. Population: 144,249 (2010 Census); 156,931 (2002 Census); 148,608 (1989 Census).
The discovery of extensive underground oil reserves has made Maykop a major centre for oil extraction for the Soviet Union and, subsequently, Russia. Other economically important sectors are food processing and the timber industry.
Maykop (other spelling Maikop) is an administrative center and capital city of Adygeya Republic of Russia. The city is located on the left bank of the Belaya (White) River about 1,600 km south of Moscow. Maykop population is about 144,000 (2012), land area - 58 sq. km.
Maykop is one of the most beautiful cities in the Northern Caucasus region. It is due to broad streets, a lot of green trees and bushes, a lot of squares, parks and a very picturesque park above the river Belaya. Almost all the industry of the Republic of Adygeya is located in Maykop. Main industries are as follows: food, wood-processing, paper and pulp, machine-building and metal-working and light industries.
The city is a big transportation juncture of the republic. The local electric trains bring passengers to the coast of the Black Sea: to Tuapse, Sochi, Adler. There are two main universities in Maykop: Adygeya State University and Maykop State Technological University. There are two airports in the city: “Maykop” and “Khanskaya”. It is planned to open an international airport “Maykop”.
Maykop was founded in 1857. That time it was the Russian settlement and fortress populated by Kuban Cossacks. In 1858-1863, the fortress was playing an important role during the end of Russian Caucasus War due to its strategic position. The settlement received town status in 1870.
Several oil deposits were discovered in Maykop city area in 1911. In 1936, the city with the surrounding territories joined the Adygeya Autonomous oblast and became the capital city of the oblast. In August 1942, it was captured by Nazi Germany army. The city was liberated in January, 1943. Maykop received the status of the capital of Adygeya Republic of Russia in 1991.
The word “maykop” from Adygeya people language means “The valley of apple trees”. There is a military base on the southern side of Maykop along the river housing 131st Motor Rifle Brigade of North Caucasus Military District. The city is worldwide known for its archaeological excavations of the end of the 19th century. They resulted in finding Maykop Hills of the Bronze Age. Precious vessels were found in the tribe leader’s burial, at present they are exposed in the Hermitage.
In the regional museum of local study there are rich collections of folk applied arts, among them unique collections of gold-sewn works, silver coins and daggers. There are 2 drama theaters (Russian and Adygean), a philharmonic society, Chamber music theater, museum of local study and history and the Northern-Caucasus branch of the State museum of East nations art in the city.
The center of Maykop is formed by Drouzhba (Friendship) Square with the monument “Drouzhba” (1968), erected in honor of the 400th anniversary of uniting with Russia and also by Lenin Square with the number of governmental buildings. Among large public buildings worth noting are the following ones: hotel “Agygeya” (1956), Communications House (1956), movie theater “Oktyabr” (1961), Justice House (1966), city art school (1972), Adygeya Government House (1988), National Museum of Local Study (1992).
In the northern outskirt of Maykop there is the Memorial on common grave of 4,000 Red Army soldiers perished in September 1918, and the Black Sea fleet sailors who in 1942 committed airborne landing - the first one during the Great Patriotic War. There is also a recreation area in Maykop - the Recreation Park stretches along the river Belaya. The outskirts of Maykop, especially the river Belaya canyon attract tourists by nature beauty and a lot of places of interest.
In 1929-1938, famous scientist and academician N.I.Vavilov lived and worked in the settlement Shuntuk. In the Upper Belyay there is Caucasian State reserve founded in 1924. Most of its part and its center - Guzeripl - are located on the territory of Adygeya Republic.